A- och B-shares: a simple guide

Introduction

Share classes are a common phenomenon in the corporate world and can be confusing for investors, especially those who are new to the field. Among the various types of share classes, A and B shares are particularly prominent and common. However, in today’s business world, companies with complex share structures, including different share classes like A-shares, B-shares, C-shares, as well as preference shares such as Preference1 and Preference2, are prevalent. These different share classes confer different rights and may be linked to various aspects, such as different cash flow rights and voting rights. At times, they may also include share-specific provisions specified in the articles of association.

By issuing different types of shares with varying rights, companies can create a flexible structure for ownership and governance. For example, A-shares may be granted special privileges that give certain owners greater influence over the company’s decisions, while B-shares may have other rights associated with them. These differences in rights may be designed to benefit specific stakeholders or to enable different types of capital acquisition.

Cash flow rights may mean that certain shareholders have preference in receiving dividends or profit distribution, while other shareholders may have limited or no such rights. This allows the company to differentiate payouts based on the preferences and needs of shareholders.

Similarly, voting rights may vary between different share classes. Some shareholders may have more votes per share, giving them greater influence over the company’s decisions at shareholder meetings or in the election of board members. This structure can be used to ensure control over the company, as certain owners may have a larger share of the votes despite owning a smaller share of the total capital.

Provisions in the articles of association may further specify the terms and limitations for each share class. These provisions may be share-class-specific and may include restrictions on the transfer of certain shares, limitations related to changes in ownership, or other specific conditions that apply to a particular share class.

The increased complexity of share structures with different share classes and rights enables companies to customize their ownership structure and governance to suit their specific needs. It can also be a strategy to protect the interests of certain owners or to attract investors with different preferences. These varied share classes and their associated rights provide an opportunity to tailor the company’s capital structure in a way that…

In this article, we will explore what A and B share classes entail and why they are important for companies and investors.

What are A-shares?

A-shares are typically issued to founders, board members, and key individuals within the company. These shares give owners greater voting rights per share compared to other share classes, providing them with more influence over the company’s decisions and strategy. It is common for A-shares to be reserved for internal stakeholders and they may have the privilege of being more preferential in dividend distributions. In other words, A-shares allow owners to steer and shape the company’s future.

What are B-shares?

B-shares are usually available to the “public” and typically have fewer voting rights than A-shares. These shares offer investors an opportunity to buy and own shares in a company without having the same influence as internal owners. Companies often use B-shares to open up capital acquisition while retaining control over decision-making. For investors, B-shares can be an opportunity to participate in the company’s growth without having the same degree of influence as founders and key individuals.

Differences between A and B shares

The differences between A and B shares can be significant. Here are some common aspects where they may differ:

  1. Voting Rights: A-shares typically give owners more voting rights per share compared to B-shares. This allows internal stakeholders to have greater influence over the company’s decisions and governance. The difference cannot be greater than 10 times, for example, 10 votes for an A-share and 1 for a B-share.

  2. Preferential Rights: A-shares may be preferential in dividend distribution (though not always), meaning owners of these shares receive a larger portion of the dividend than owners of B-shares.

  3. Availability: B-shares are often more accessible (more liquid) to the public and can be bought and sold on the open market. A-shares are typically not as readily accessible and may be reserved for specific ownership groups.

  4. Price Differences: Due to differences in voting rights and benefits, the prices of A and B shares may vary. A-shares may be more sought after and consequently have higher prices than B-shares, but it can also be the other way around if investors prioritize liquidity.

Why are A and B shares used?

Companies use share classes like A and B for various reasons. Here are some reasons why they can be advantageous:

  1. Control and Influence: By using A-shares, company founders and key individuals can maintain greater control and influence over decision-making. This gives them the ability to steer the company in line with their vision.

  2. Capital Acquisition: B-shares enable companies to open up to the public and attract capital from investors interested in the company’s growth prospects. This can be particularly beneficial for funding expansion, research and development, or acquisitions.

  3. Balance of Power: By having different share classes, companies can maintain a balance between ensuring internal control while allowing for external investments. It can help avoid a single investor or stakeholder gaining too much influence over the company’s future.

Closing Thoughts

A and B shares are common types of share classes used by companies to create a structure that balances ownership and influence. By offering different levels of voting rights and benefits, these share classes give investors and business leaders the opportunity to shape and drive the company in different ways. It’s important to remember that share classes may vary between different companies, so it’s crucial to read and understand the company’s articles of association and information before investing.

Understanding these share classes can help investors make more informed decisions and develop a clearer picture of the ownership structure in the companies they are interested in. As always, it’s important to conduct one’s own research and consult a financial advisor before making investment decisions.

#aktieklasser #Aaktier #Baktier #företagsägande #investeringsstrategi #finansiellaplaceringar #investeringar #onoterat #onoteratochofiltrerat

Disclaimer

All information provided by Polynom AB/Monylop AB is exclusively for informational purposes, for general dissemination, and should under no circumstances be used or regarded as advice, solicitation, or recommendation to buy or sell stocks or other financial instruments. It should be noted without doubt that the Act (2003:862) on Financial Advisory to Consumers or any similar legislation does not apply to information from Polynom AB/Monylop AB. Opinions and analyses presented by Polynom AB/Monylop AB should not solely form the basis for investment decisions. You should seek advice from licensed independent advisors and base your investment decisions on your own experience and situation. Polynom AB/Monylop AB reminds that trading in securities is associated with risks. An investment may both increase and decrease in value, and it is not certain that you will get back the entire invested capital. Historical performance is also no guarantee of future performance. Therefore, Polynom AB/Monylop AB disclaims any liability for any loss or damage of any kind that may be based on the use of analyses, documents, and other information originating from Polynom AB/Monylop AB.

Polynom/Monylop AB can never guarantee the accuracy of the information, and the information may be incomplete or abbreviated. Forward-looking analyses, etc., are based on subjective assessments of the future, which always involve uncertainty and should be used with caution.

Rights & obligations as a shareholder

Rights & Responsibilities as a Shareholder: What Should You Consider as a Shareholder?

 

Right to a Lot

When you invest in a company and buy shares, you gain various rights. For instance, you can sell your shares at any time, provided you find a buyer. You are therefore not normally bound to remain a shareholder for any specific period.

Right to Have Your Voice Heard

A company’s annual meeting, known as the annual general meeting (AGM), is open to all shareholders. Typically, the financial results of the previous year are presented, the board of directors is elected or re-elected, and decisions are made about potential dividend distribution.

The AGM is an opportunity for you as a shareholder to meet those who govern the company and vote on the proposals put forth by the board and sometimes other shareholders. It gives you a chance to influence the company’s future. The individual with the most shares usually has the most say at an AGM. However, everyone has the right to stand up and speak for their cause. This allows even small shareholders to try to convince larger ones to vote for a proposal and have their say in how the company is governed. It’s important to note that different decisions require different majorities. For instance, changes to the articles of association require a larger majority (if the shares have equal voting rights), so at least two-thirds of the shares represented at the meeting must vote in favor. However, to issue new shares (the general meeting decides on a rights issue), a simple majority is usually sufficient, meaning that the decision has received more than half of the votes cast at the meeting. In Sweden, companies can have different classes of shares (read our article on A- vs B-shares: HERE), but the difference in voting power cannot be greater than 10 times, for example, 10 votes for an A-share and 1 for a B-share.

Right to Information

To keep track of how the company you’ve invested in is actually progressing, you, as a shareholder, have the right to access information. Companies on the stock exchange are therefore required to report on their financial situation every quarter. The information requirements that apply to listed companies are not applicable to these unlisted companies. Therefore, they do not have the same obligation to report their financial performance, which can be a risk in itself. Therefore, newsletters, information meetings, the AGM, and the annual report are important sources of information in an unlisted company.

Right of Pre-emption When the Company Issues New Shares

When a company needs to raise new money, it often issues more shares than those already in existence (read more about share issues: HERE). For existing shareholders, this means that their shares will be diluted, representing a smaller portion of the company after the new shares are issued. The more shares, the smaller the portion of the company each share represents. Therefore, existing shareholders often have the right of pre-emption to buy the new shares or to be involved when something else happens with the shares in a company. Read more about Dilution: HERE.

Profits Can Become Dividends

A company can have a high valuation even if it is not making a profit (e.g., Klarna or Spotify). As an investor, you want to get a return, either by selling shares or through dividends. If a company you own shares in has made a profit, the AGM may choose to distribute parts of the profit to the shareholders or retain the money within the company for use in its development. This is how it works with a dividend:

  • The company must prepare an annual report every year. The annual report summarizes all income and expenses for the past year. Usually, you can also read about the company’s future plans.
  • If the company has made a profit, the board presents a proposal for how the profit should be used. How the profit is used depends on the existing plans and the financial situation of the company, and often, consideration is given to the external environment.
  • If there are plans for investments in the coming years, the board may propose that the company’s profit be saved instead of being distributed to the shareholders. By retaining the profit within the company, it can be used to finance and expand the operations. This can be a strategy to ensure adequate resources for planned investments and enable growth in the company.
  • If no major investments are needed or if there is money left after setting aside funds for investments, the board may instead propose to distribute all or parts of the profit to the shareholders.
  • At the AGM, shareholders vote for either the proposal put forward by the board or alternative proposals that arise at the meeting.
  • The company pays a dividend to you for each share you own. Normally, dividends are paid once a year, but it has become more popular to pay on a quarterly or semi-annual basis (common in, for example, the USA). Keep in mind that depending on your tax situation, the state wants its share.

 

But responsibilities? Almost none.

As a shareholder, you have no responsibilities towards the company in which you buy shares. You do not need to pay the company’s debts, even though you receive a share of its potential profits. You do not need to be involved in deciding the company’s future, even though you have the right to do so. You can buy a share and not think about it again until the day you sell it.

No responsibilities, almost.

As mentioned, you have no responsibilities towards the company, but you have responsibilities towards the state or sometimes other shareholders.

Shareholders must report their shareholdings, dividends, and the profits made from the sale of shares. You do this through your income tax return in the years you sell shares. In the listed environment, it’s quite straightforward as you usually receive a pre-filled K4 form from your broker, which is sent along with your income tax return. In the unlisted environment, it’s also relatively simple, and you manually fill in a K12 form (which is quite similar to a K4) instead.

In unlisted companies, it’s also common to have shareholder agreements that regulate the relationship between shareholders (you can read more about shareholder agreements: HERE).

As always, it’s important to do your own research and consult a financial advisor before making investment decisions.

#företagsägande #investeringsstrategi #finansiellaplaceringar #investeringar #onoterat #onoteratochofiltrerat

Disclaimer

All information provided by Polynom AB/Monylop AB is exclusively for informational purposes, for general dissemination, and should under no circumstances be used or regarded as advice, solicitation, or recommendation to buy or sell stocks or other financial instruments. It should be noted without doubt that the Act (2003:862) on Financial Advisory to Consumers or any similar legislation does not apply to information from Polynom AB/Monylop AB. Opinions and analyses presented by Polynom AB/Monylop AB should not solely form the basis for investment decisions. You should seek advice from licensed independent advisors and base your investment decisions on your own experience and situation. Polynom AB/Monylop AB reminds that trading in securities is associated with risks. An investment may both increase and decrease in value, and it is not certain that you will get back the entire invested capital. Historical performance is also no guarantee of future performance. Therefore, Polynom AB/Monylop AB disclaims any liability for any loss or damage of any kind that may be based on the use of analyses, documents, and other information originating from Polynom AB/Monylop AB.

Polynom/Monylop AB can never guarantee the accuracy of the information, and the information may be incomplete or abbreviated. Forward-looking analyses, etc., are based on subjective assessments of the future, which always involve uncertainty and should be used with caution.

Share Issue

 

An Overview of Rights Issues: What Is It and How Does It Work?

In the corporate world, there are various ways for companies to raise new capital to finance their operations and implement growth plans. One of these financing methods is through a process known as a rights issue. In this article, we will take a closer look at what a rights issue is, how it operates, and what advantages and challenges it may present for both the company and investors.

In a rights issue, a company decides to issue new shares on the financial market. This can occur for various reasons, such as financing expansion projects, developing new products or technologies, reducing debt, or strengthening the balance sheet. By offering shares to the public or existing shareholders, the company has the opportunity to attract new capital and broaden its shareholder base.

A rights issue can be carried out either as a directed issue or as a public issue. In a directed issue, the company directs the invitation to buy new shares to specific investors, such as institutional investors or existing shareholders. Here, the regulations stipulate that the company may contact up to 149 individuals (subject to the so-called Dissemination Prohibition in Chapter 1, Sections 7-8 of the Companies Act 2005:55). This can be advantageous if the company has specific investors in mind who can contribute expertise, experience, or industry contacts.

A public issue, on the other hand, means the company offers shares to the general public. This can be an opportunity for individuals to buy shares in a company and become partial owners of the business. To make the offer attractive to investors, the company may sometimes offer the shares at a discounted price or provide other incentives. In this case, it is usually a requirement to prepare a prospectus, which must then be approved by the Financial Supervisory Authority (FI), but as usual, there are exceptions.

A rights issue typically requires the company to enlist the help of an investment bank or a securities firm to facilitate the process. These entities assist in determining the right price and volume for the issue, marketing the offer to potential investors, and handling the legal and administrative aspects of the process. For smaller companies, systems like Invono One can be used to streamline the process.

Pricing, of course, involves a tug-of-war; the company, on one hand, wants as high a price as possible, while investors want to buy as cheaply as possible.

For the company conducting a rights issue, there are several potential benefits. Firstly, the company receives new capital that can be used to finance various growth initiatives. This can include investments in research and development, acquisitions of other companies, expansion into new markets, or infrastructure improvements. Additionally, the rights issue can contribute to improving the company’s financial position by reducing debt and increasing the capital base.

For investors, a rights issue can be an opportunity to purchase shares at a favorable price and become partial owners in a company with growth potential. It can be an interesting investment opportunity for individuals who may not have had the chance to invest in the company before. However, there are also certain challenges and risks for investors to consider, such as uncertainty about the company’s future performance and development, as well as potential dilution effects on share ownership.

In summary, a rights issue can be an effective financing method for companies looking to raise new capital and expand their operations. By offering shares to the public or existing shareholders, an opportunity is created for investors to become partial owners and potentially benefit from the company’s growth and successes. However, it is important (as always!) to carefully evaluate both the company and the potential risks before deciding to participate in a rights issue as an investor.

 

#investering #investera #aktier #finansiellavkastning #emission #riskhantering #onoterat #onoterat&ofiltrerat

 

Disclaimer

All information provided by Polynom AB/Monylop AB is exclusively for informational purposes, for general dissemination, and should under no circumstances be used or regarded as advice, solicitation, or recommendation to buy or sell stocks or other financial instruments. It should be noted without doubt that the Act (2003:862) on Financial Advisory to Consumers or any similar legislation does not apply to information from Polynom AB/Monylop AB. Opinions and analyses presented by Polynom AB/Monylop AB should not solely form the basis for investment decisions. You should seek advice from licensed independent advisors and base your investment decisions on your own experience and situation. Polynom AB/Monylop AB reminds that trading in securities is associated with risks. An investment may both increase and decrease in value, and it is not certain that you will get back the entire invested capital. Historical performance is also no guarantee of future performance. Therefore, Polynom AB/Monylop AB disclaims any liability for any loss or damage of any kind that may be based on the use of analyses, documents, and other information originating from Polynom AB/Monylop AB.

Polynom/Monylop AB can never guarantee the accuracy of the information, and the information may be incomplete or abbreviated. Forward-looking analyses, etc., are based on subjective assessments of the future, which always involve uncertainty and should be used with caution.

Pro-Rata

What is Pro Rata and Why is it Important to Understand?

Pro rata is an adjective that means “in proportion to something.” Pro rata distribution refers to the allocation of something in relation to a particular factor, such as share ownership. When a company undergoes a new issuance, your pro rata share is the portion of shares you have the right to subscribe to, relative to your existing ownership in the company, but it is not an obligation to do so.

A new issuance is a process where a company issues new shares to raise capital. This can be done for various reasons, such as financing expansion plans or paying off debts. When a company issues new shares in a new issuance, existing shareholders usually have a preemptive right to subscribe to the new shares in proportion to their existing shareholdings.

Pro rata distribution ensures that existing shareholders do not lose their relative stake in the company when new shares are issued. For example, if an existing shareholder owns 10% of the company’s shares before the new issuance, that shareholder will have the right to subscribe to 10% of the new shares issued in the new issuance. This way, the shareholder maintains their 10% stake in the company’s total shareholdings, even after the new shares have been issued.

The advantage of pro rata distribution is that it protects existing shareholders from dilution of their stakes in the company. Without pro rata distribution, new shares could be issued at a lower price than what existing shareholders paid for their existing shares, potentially diluting their ownership in the company. Pro rata distribution also ensures that all existing shareholders are treated equally and have an equal opportunity to subscribe to the new shares in proportion to their existing ownership.

If existing shareholders do not subscribe to all of their allocated new shares, the remaining shares can be distributed pro rata among the other shareholders who have exercised their subscription rights. This means that if an existing shareholder does not want or is unable to subscribe to all of their allocated new shares, they can still receive a certain portion of the new shares through pro rata distribution.

In summary, pro rata distribution ensures that existing shareholders maintain their relative stake in the company and are protected from dilution of their ownership during a new issuance. It also provides new investors with the opportunity to invest in the company without unnecessarily diluting the ownership of existing shareholders.

Example: You own 10% of Company X, which is now conducting a new issuance of 1000 shares. In this case, your pro rata share is 100 shares (= 1000 * 10%).

Whether or not to take your pro rata share depends on the individual case and one’s belief in the company’s future. Additionally, it is a personal decision based on one’s own financial situation.

#investering #investera #aktier #finansiellavkastning #emission #riskhantering #onoterat #onoterat&ofiltrerat #pro-rata

Disclaimer

All information provided by Polynom AB/Monylop AB is exclusively for informational purposes, for general dissemination, and should under no circumstances be used or regarded as advice, solicitation, or recommendation to buy or sell stocks or other financial instruments. It should be noted without doubt that the Act (2003:862) on Financial Advisory to Consumers or any similar legislation does not apply to information from Polynom AB/Monylop AB. Opinions and analyses presented by Polynom AB/Monylop AB should not solely form the basis for investment decisions. You should seek advice from licensed independent advisors and base your investment decisions on your own experience and situation. Polynom AB/Monylop AB reminds that trading in securities is associated with risks. An investment may both increase and decrease in value, and it is not certain that you will get back the entire invested capital. Historical performance is also no guarantee of future performance. Therefore, Polynom AB/Monylop AB disclaims any liability for any loss or damage of any kind that may be based on the use of analyses, documents, and other information originating from Polynom AB/Monylop AB.

Polynom/Monylop AB can never guarantee the accuracy of the information, and the information may be incomplete or abbreviated. Forward-looking analyses, etc., are based on subjective assessments of the future, which always involve uncertainty and should be used with caution.

Dilution

Share Dilution and Its Effects on Shareholders

Introduction

In a new issuance, a so-called dilution occurs. If more shares are added, it means that the existing shares represent a smaller portion of the company. This often leads to a decrease in the value of the existing shares.

 

Share Dilution: What is it?

Share dilution is a process where a company increases the number of outstanding shares by issuing new shares. This results in each existing share representing a smaller ownership stake in the company. This can affect the ownership percentage and value of shares for existing shareholders.

 

Types of Dilution

  1. Economic Dilution: This occurs when a company issues new shares at a lower price than the existing shares. This can decrease the value per share for existing shareholders.

  2. Voting Dilution: This happens when an issuance affects the voting rights of existing shareholders. If new shares are issued to parties other than existing shareholders, their influence over the company’s decisions may decrease.

 

Why is Share Dilution Important?

Share dilution can have significant consequences for existing shareholders. It can lead to a reduced ownership stake and impact the value of their investments. Therefore, it is crucial for shareholders to understand and consider the effects of dilution when investing in a company.

 

Causes of Share Dilution

  1. New Issuance: Companies often issue new shares to raise capital. This could be to finance growth projects or to manage debt.

  2. Conversion of Debt or Options: If a company has debt that can be converted into shares or options agreements that grant the right to buy shares, this can lead to dilution.

Effects of Share Dilution

  1. Reduced Ownership Stake: Existing shareholders own a smaller portion of the company after dilution. This can affect their influence and control over the company.

  2. Impact on Share Value: The value per share may decrease due to the increased number of outstanding shares. This can result in a decline in the stock price.

 

Assessing the Effects of Share Dilution

To evaluate the effects of dilution, shareholders should carefully monitor the company’s decisions and communicated plans. They should also consider other factors such as the company’s performance, growth prospects, competitive situation, management competence, and industry trends.

 

Conclusion

In conclusion, share dilution is an important factor for shareholders to consider when investing in a company. It can affect ownership percentage and the value of their investments. Therefore, it is crucial to understand and weigh the effects of dilution before making investment decisions. It’s also important to note that dilution is not always negative. In some cases, new issuances and conversions can be beneficial for the company and its shareholders in the long run. Dilution through debt conversion can also help improve the company’s capital structure and reduce its debt burden. Overall, dilution is a part of the investment landscape, but it is not the only factor that should be taken into account.

 

 

#investering #investera #aktier #finansiellavkastning #emission #riskhantering #onoterat #onoterat&ofiltrerat #utspadning

 

Disclaimer

All information provided by Polynom AB/Monylop AB is exclusively for informational purposes, for general dissemination, and should under no circumstances be used or regarded as advice, solicitation, or recommendation to buy or sell stocks or other financial instruments. It should be noted without doubt that the Act (2003:862) on Financial Advisory to Consumers or any similar legislation does not apply to information from Polynom AB/Monylop AB. Opinions and analyses presented by Polynom AB/Monylop AB should not solely form the basis for investment decisions. You should seek advice from licensed independent advisors and base your investment decisions on your own experience and situation. Polynom AB/Monylop AB reminds that trading in securities is associated with risks. An investment may both increase and decrease in value, and it is not certain that you will get back the entire invested capital. Historical performance is also no guarantee of future performance. Therefore, Polynom AB/Monylop AB disclaims any liability for any loss or damage of any kind that may be based on the use of analyses, documents, and other information originating from Polynom AB/Monylop AB.

Polynom/Monylop AB can never guarantee the accuracy of the information, and the information may be incomplete or abbreviated. Forward-looking analyses, etc., are based on subjective assessments of the future, which always involve uncertainty and should be used with caution.

Due Diligence

Due Diligence: A Thorough Examination for Informed Decisions

Introduction

Before undertaking a business deal or investment, it is of paramount importance to conduct a comprehensive and systematic review of the company or transaction in question. This process, known as due diligence, aims to gather and analyze relevant information to make well-informed decisions and mitigate risks. In this article, we will explore what due diligence is, why it is crucial, and what factors are examined during the process.

What is Due Diligence?

Due diligence can be described as a comprehensive review process of a company or a transaction. It is a method of creating a holistic view of the company’s financial, legal, and operational status. By performing due diligence, one can assess the company’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, as well as identify any risks or hurdles that may affect a business deal or investment.

Why is Due Diligence Important?

Due diligence is crucial for minimizing risks and maximizing opportunities. By conducting a thorough examination, one can identify potential legal issues, financial challenges, or operational inefficiencies that may impact the success of the company or the value of an investment. It helps to create a realistic picture of the company’s current and future potential.

During the process, the company’s strategies, competitive situation, market trends, and customer relationships are also evaluated. This provides a deeper understanding of the company’s position in its industry and whether there is room for growth or restructuring.

Factors Examined During Due Diligence

Due diligence encompasses a range of different factors and areas that are scrutinized thoroughly. Here are some of the most common ones:

  1. Financial Review: This part involves examining the company’s financial statements, balance sheets, income statements, and cash flow analyses. The aim is to assess the company’s financial health, profitability, and indebtedness.

  2. Legal Review: This includes a review of the company’s legal documents, contracts, disputes, and intellectual property assets. The goal is to discover any legal risks, claims, or agreements that may affect the deal.

  3. Operational Review: Here, the company’s operations, processes, production capacity, and personnel are evaluated. The objective is to assess the effectiveness, quality, and competitiveness of the company’s operations.

  4. Environmental and Sustainability Review: This part involves an assessment of the company’s environmental impact, compliance with environmental laws, and sustainability strategies. This is particularly important in today’s environmentally conscious business world.

Outcome of Due Diligence

After the due diligence process is conducted, a summary of the examined areas and an assessment of the company’s overall strengths and weaknesses are provided. This information is used to evaluate whether the business deal or investment is viable and if there are any risks or hurdles that need to be addressed.

If the outcome of due diligence reveals significant risks or issues, it may lead to a reconsideration or even cancellation of the deal. On the other hand, a positive due diligence report can boost confidence in the deal and provide the necessary information to negotiate favorable terms.

Conclusion

Due diligence is a necessary process for making well-informed decisions and reducing risks in business deals and investments. By conducting a thorough and systematic examination, one can gain a comprehensive view of the company or transaction in question and identify potential risks and opportunities. It is a vital part of the business process that helps create successful and sustainable business relationships.

#investering #investera #aktier #finansiellavkastning #emission #riskhantering #onoterat #onoterat&ofiltrerat

 

 

Disclaimer

All information provided by Polynom AB/Monylop AB is exclusively for informational purposes, for general dissemination, and should under no circumstances be used or regarded as advice, solicitation, or recommendation to buy or sell stocks or other financial instruments. It should be noted without doubt that the Act (2003:862) on Financial Advisory to Consumers or any similar legislation does not apply to information from Polynom AB/Monylop AB. Opinions and analyses presented by Polynom AB/Monylop AB should not solely form the basis for investment decisions. You should seek advice from licensed independent advisors and base your investment decisions on your own experience and situation. Polynom AB/Monylop AB reminds that trading in securities is associated with risks. An investment may both increase and decrease in value, and it is not certain that you will get back the entire invested capital. Historical performance is also no guarantee of future performance. Therefore, Polynom AB/Monylop AB disclaims any liability for any loss or damage of any kind that may be based on the use of analyses, documents, and other information originating from Polynom AB/Monylop AB.

Polynom/Monylop AB can never guarantee the accuracy of the information, and the information may be incomplete or abbreviated. Forward-looking analyses, etc., are based on subjective assessments of the future, which always involve uncertainty and should be used with caution.